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TQM pushes that envelope to include both the design of the product and its delivery to the client while incorporating other philosophies such as empowerment and teamwork. Benefits of Total Quality Management Khan (2003) cites improvements in productivity, revenue, market-share and profits by companies that adopted TQM practices.
In a survey given to 770 companies Mann & Kehoe (1994) published results that further quantified positive results of TQM implementation.
Areas of improvement included supplier relationship, process, policy deployment and customer relationship.
Rad (2006) places the emphasis on the senior manager stating that they are required to ensure compliance to TQM principles and values in all parts of their organisation.
These include organisational structure, education, communication, process, procedure and compensation strategies.
Along with Feigenbaum, who published his book ‘Total Quality Control’ The quality movement was beginning to gain momentum.
(Mc Kenna, 1995) But it wasn’t until 1980 when the NBC produced a documentary titled, If Japan Can, Why Can’t We? Osborn, 1990) Forms of quality management emerged during the 80’s in many manufacturing and service-sector companies, followed in the 90’s by public and welfare based organisations. Today there are many awards associated with quality.Chiu, Chang & Chen (2010) state by using TQM within the Human Resource context it leads to increased loyalty and satisfaction amongst its employees.Moreover, improved business performance is not limited by the scale of the organisation. Problems with Total Quality Management We have already considered the difficulty in attempting to define TQM, but what other issues are there to face when considering TQM?Boaden (1997) discusses the difficulty of trying to define TQM but acknowledges the importance in attempting to do so because TQM as a subject is now being taught in learning institutions.Patel (1993) agrees and cites definitions created by various authors before contending that TQM is a process that recognises that quality should be the primary focus, and the mission statement of the company should reflect this.This award remains the highest form of recognition that a Japanese company can obtain.In 1954 Juran arrived in Japan and began to teach his own ideas on quality.The most recognised of these being the US Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, the European Quality Award, the Japanese Deming Prize, the Canadian Quality Award and the Australian Quality Award. Defining Total Quality Management There are many and varied thoughts about how to define TQM.Together these awards represent a large proportion of global production of goods and services and account for over 70% of Gross national product across the planet. Dellana & Hauser (1999) identify an absence of consistency among studies on quality when attempting to define TQM.What appeared to be a simple message was music to the ears of forlorn and vanquished Japanese.One industry leader who had attended the lecture heeded Deming’s advice and within a few months saw his companies productivity rise by 30 per cent.