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Conversely, the indirect force measurement method measures the force through a strain proportional to the process force [The impact hammer testing was carried out to assess cross-talk effects on the proposed smart tool 1.The Kistler impact force hammer (Type 9722A), with the force range of 0 to 500 N and sensitivity of 10 m V/N, is used to impact the cutting tip of the tool insert both vertically and horizontally.
Some materials, such as aluminum and magnesium alloys, are not recommended for applying direct dry-cutting, since the cutting tool is prone to suffering excessive built-up edge (BUE).
So for high precision and micro machining, there is a need for new sensor technologies to be applied to further exploit and understand the cutting mechanics and machining process .
For instance, dynamometers are developed by researchers and industrial companies to measure cutting forces and the process dynamics in high precision and wide bandwidth.
Currently, however, dynamometers have some limitations in their industrial application, such as their costs and reliability in stringent production environment.
Some high value components require to be machined in a contamination-free environment, which means coolant cannot be applied during the machining.
However, dry cutting condition would lead to tool wear and high cutting temperature, and poor surface quality would thus occur and tool life be shortened.Smart machining has tremendous potential and is becoming one of new generation high value precision manufacturing technologies in line with the advance of Industry 4.0 concepts.This paper presents some innovative design concepts and, in particular, the development of four types of smart cutting tools, including a force-based smart cutting tool, a temperature-based internally-cooled cutting tool, a fast tool servo (FTS) and smart collets for ultraprecision and micro manufacturing purposes.Furthermore, dynamometers are not applicable for layout-constrained machines and tooling setup, due to their size and weight.The dynamometer could also interfere with the cutting process and performance because of the tooling stiffness reduction in the machining system .The force-based smart cutting tool employs a piezoelectric film as the sensoring element, mainly using force shunt and indirect force measurement methods.The surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor is also adopted in developing the smart cutting tool by measuring the cutting force through an alternative approach.In high precision machining, however, to position the cutting tool with such high accuracy and repeatability is the key and this is normally undertaken in a “passive” manner, i.e., the tool’s position relying on the slideways’ positioning accuracy but without measuring the tool cutting behaviour and process conditions.Furthermore, for many high value precision machining processes, it is important to use smart cutting tools to carry out the processes in a ‘proactive’ manner, in order to cope with machining dynamics, process variations and complexity.Cutting force can be generally measured by three methods, i.e., using force shunt, direct force measurement and indirect force measurement.Regarding direct cutting force measurement method, a sensoring unit is mounted directly in the force path in order to measure the entire process force.