Solving Equilibrium Problems

Solving Equilibrium Problems-87
Iterating once more, we get and x = 0.0206 which is sufficiently close to the previous to be considered the final result.

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The easiest and most error-free way of doing this is adopt a systematic approach in which you create and fill in a small table as shown in the following problem example.

You then substitute the equilibrium values into the equilibrium constant expression, and solve it for the unknown.

This very often involves solving a quadratic or higher-order equation.

Quadratics can of course be solved by using the familiar quadratic formula, but it is often easier to use an algebraic or graphical approximation, and for higher-order equations this is the only practical approach.

The principal source of confusion and error for beginners relates to the need to determine the values of several unknowns (a concentration or pressure for each component) from a single equation, the equilibrium expression.

The key to this is to make use of the stoichiometric relationships between the various components, which usually allow us to express the equilibrium composition in terms of a single variable.At this point we hope you remember those gas laws that you were told you would be using later in the course!The density of a gas is directly proportional to its molecular weight, so you need to calculate the densities of pure P will be somewhere in between the densities of the two pure gases, so you can find the dissociation fraction x by simple proportion..The molecular weight of phosphorus is 31.97, giving a molar mass of 127.9 g for P = 16.Comment: The moral of this story is that you should always be ready to make use of simple proportionality when appropriate.The biochemical formation of a disaccharide (double) sugar from two monosaccharides is exemplified by the reaction fructose glucose-6-phosphate → sucrose-6-phosphate (Sucrose is ordinary table sugar.) To what volume should a solution containing 0.050 mol of each monosaccharide be diluted in order to bring about 5% conversion to sucrose phosphate?Solution: The initial and final numbers of moles are as follows: It often happens that two immiscible liquid phases are in contact, one of which contains a solute.Solution: As always, set up a table showing what you know (first two rows) and then expressing the equilibrium quantities: .The term in the denominator of each mole fraction is the total number of moles of gas present at equilibrium: (0.200 – x) (3.00 x) x = 3.20 x.And in doing so, sketching out a simple diagram as show here can often help.This is by far the most common kind of equilibrium problem you will encounter: starting with an arbitrary number of moles of each component, how many moles of each will be present when the system comes to equilibrium?


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