Samantha Hindle Thesis

Samantha Hindle Thesis-24
I benefited from comments and edits by co-authors Andrew Trites and Christophe Guinet (Chapters 2 to 6), John Arnould (Chapters 2, 3, 5 & 6), and Yves Cherel and Austen Thomas (Chapter 4).Laboratory measurements of oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope for the doubly-labeled water analyses (Chapters 2, 3, 5 and 6) were done at John Speakman’s Isotope Laboratory in Energetics at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland.

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37 2.5.1 Dynamic body acceleration ................................................................................... 37 2.5.2 Time-activity budgets and activity-specific energy expenditures .........................

41 2.5.3 Conclusions ........................................................................................................... 45 Chapter 3: Do flipper stroke rates and amplitudes accurately predict energy expenditure in foraging northern fur seals and Antarctic fur seals? 47 3.1 Summary ....................................................................................................................... 47 3.2 Introduction................................................................................................................... 48 3.3 Material and methods ................................................................................................... 49 3.3.1 Data collection ....................................................................................................... 49 3.3.2 Energy expenditure, diving and foraging parameters, and time-activity budgets .

14 2.1 Summary ....................................................................................................................... 14 2.2 Introduction................................................................................................................... 15 2.3 Material and methods ................................................................................................... 17 2.3.1 Data collection ....................................................................................................... 17 2.3.2 Daily energy expenditure – doubly-labeled water method ....................................

19 2.3.3 Diving and foraging behaviour parameters ...........................................................

iii Preface I designed the research protocols and conducted the field experiments described in Chapters 3 to 6, and performed all of the data analyses in all of the Chapters.

I also prepared and wrote Chapters 2 to 6 as stand-alone manuscripts for publication.64 3.5.4 Comparison of flipper stroke vs Ve DBA as an index of total energy spent at sea 64 3.5.5 Conclusion .............................................................................................................65 Chapter 4: Combined hard-parts and DNA analyses of scats, and stable isotope analysis of blood from lactating females reveal two distinct diets and foraging strategies for northern fur seals breeding in the Bering Sea .................................66 4.1 Summary ....................................................................................................................... 66 4.2 Introduction................................................................................................................... 67 4.3 Material and methods ................................................................................................... 69 4.3.1 Data collection ....................................................................................................... 69 4.3.2 Morphological identification from hard-parts in scats and prey size ....................70 4.3.3 Prey species identification from DNA sequences analyses ...................................Energy expenditure for each foraging trip was measured using the doubly-labeled water method, and energy gained while foraging was determined from 1) diet composition (scat hard-parts and DNA) and blood stable isotope ratios; and 2) numbers of prey capture attempts (from head acceleration).Maternal investment in pups was determined from pup growth rates or from energy content of milk samples.DNA-metabarcoding measures of northern fur seal scats were performed in collaboration with Austen Thomas (Chapter 4).Identification of scat hard part remains were performed by Pacific ID Inc., Victoria, BC, Canada for northern fur seal scats, and in collaboration with Yves Cherel at the CEBC, CNRS France for Antarctic fur seal scats (Chapters 4, 5, & 6).iv Table of contents Abstract ......................................................................................................................... ii Preface .......................................................................................................................... iii Table of contents ......................................................................................................... iv List of tables ................................................................................................................. x List of figures ............................................................................................................. xiii Lists of abbreviations............................................................................................... xvii Acknowledgements ................................................................................................... xix Dedication .................................................................................................................. xxi Chapter 1: General introduction ................................................................................ 1 1.1 Study species and sites.................................................................................................... 2 1.2 Methodology ................................................................................................................... 8 1.3 Research objectives and hypotheses .............................................................................11 1.4 Thesis outline ................................................................................................................ 13 Chapter 2: Accelerometers can measure total and activity-specific energy expenditure in free-ranging marine mammals only if linked to time-activity budgets ........................................................................................................................

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