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In the present paper, we prove that stones in non-random cakes are indigestible.Switching to the various forms of the present tense suggests that the research in those tenses is more directly relevant to the "present" paper—that is, yours.
However, there is a way that you can usefully shift tense in a literature review in a scientific paper.
You can use the present tense for recent research that is still a topic of current conversation—especially if your paper extends or contradicts that research.
You can see "establishing tense" used a lot at the beginning of newspaper stories, where an opening statement in the present perfect tense often indicates the range of time that the story will cover ("Election costs have risen 300% since 2000"), while an opening statement in the simple past tense often suggests a very short time-frame ("Stocks rose 2.1% on light trading [implicitly are sternly (and to my mind ludicrously) literal-minded about such temporal references, but to the best of my knowledge everybody else in academe accepts the ancient convention that a text which still 'speaks' to a present-day audience does so in the present tense.
In this example, the verb "twisted" is the only verb that appears in the past tense.
The cut-off point for "recent"—that is, the present—is "present conversation".
The present perfect is a convenient way to suggest that the matter is still "open" and that your paper is going to make a contribution to it.However, if you are citing articles in the paper, as you probably should, then you should check with your professor to see if he or she would prefer that you use the literary present or the past tense when referring to these articles..pass_color_to_child_links a.u-inline.u-margin-left--xs.u-margin-right--sm.u-padding-left--xs.u-padding-right--xs.u-relative.u-absolute.u-absolute--center.u-width--100.u-flex-inline.u-flex-align-self--center.u-flex-justify--between.u-serif-font-main--regular.js-wf-loaded .u-serif-font-main--regular.amp-page .u-serif-font-main--regular.u-border-radius--ellipse.u-hover-bg--black-transparent.web_page .u-hover-bg--black-transparent:hover. There is no need to write about science in unusual, complicated, or overly formal ways in an effort to "sound scientific" or to impress your audience.If you can tell a friend about your work, you are off to a good start.It should appear in the present tense, "twists," or the other verbs should be changed to the past tense as well.Switching verb tenses upsets the time sequence of narration.The above examples are a plot summary and a direct quotation, both of which use the literary present.You can remember to write about literature in the present tense because you are currently reading or thinking about it.Here, both "wrote" and "lived" are in the past tense since they refer to Dillard's life, not her writings."Contends," however, appears in a statement about Dillard's writing, so it is in the present tense.