(Chang 5) Sometimes it is necessary to modify the wording of a quote in order to make it flow more smoothly, to add relevant information, to change its tense to suit the point you are trying to make, or to ensure that its transition in or out of your prose is grammatically correct.
As long as you do not alter the fundamental meaning of the original passage, it is permissible to make such grammatical and stylistic changes.
In fact, she notes, "the death toll of Nanking-one Chinese city alone-exceeds the number of civilian casualties of some European countries for the entire war (Chang 5).
The claim that "the Rape of Nanking surpasses much of the worst barbarism of the ages" has been a source of disagreement between Western and Japanese scholars.
The rule, again: any modifications to a quote must be placed within square brackets.
You can modify, as long as you do not change a quote's meaning.
BACK TO TOP Although we generally recommend using quotes strategically and (therefore) sparingly, there may be times when you need to quote lengthy passages to illustrate or prove your claims. There is no absolute rule as to what constitutes a "lengthy quote" - some teachers say a quote is lengthy if it exceeds four or five typed lines; others, if it exceeds forty words or four sentences.
The point is: once a quote becomes unusually lengthy it is formatted as a block quote.
Note: when summarizing multiple quotes from the same source in one reference, the order of the page numbers listed in the reference reflects the order in which the quotes are listed in your text. Even if a paragraph lists Writing on the Rape of Nanking, Iris Chang describes "Corpses piled up outside the city walls, along the river (which had turned red with blood), ponds and lakes, and on hills and mountains." Japanese scholars, however, dispute this version of events, suggesting that Chang describes "'mountains of dead bodies' that no one saw" (Chang 46; Masaaki Ch. Note: The order in which the citations are listed in the reference reflects the order in which the quotes themselves are listed in the text. 4) indicates that the first quote is from Chang, p.
The above reference (Chang 5, 46) indicates that the first-cited quote is from p. 46; followed by a quote from Masaaki (a website), Chapter Four.