Prostaglandin Sythesis Induced By Snake Venom

Male Swiss mice (18–20g) were obtained from Butantan Institute (São Paulo, Brazil).

Animals were housed in a temperature-controlled room (22–24°C) with a 12h light-dark cycle and fresh water and food ad libitum.

However, the factors involved in foam cell formation induced by a GIIA s PLA2 are still unknown.

Here, we investigated the participation of lipid homeostasis-related factors in LD formation induced by MT-III in macrophages.

DMSO and BSA were obtained from Amresco (Solon, OH, USA).

RPMI 1640, thiocarbohydrazide, and Os O were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. PLIN2 antibody, Alexa Fluor 488 antibody, and iodide propidium were purchased from Thermo Fisher Scientific (Sao Paulo, S. GA, TG, and all salts used were obtained from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany).MT-III, a snake venom GIIA s PLA2, which shares structural and functional features with mammalian GIIA s PLA2s, activates macrophage defense functions including lipid droplet (LDs) formation, organelle involved in both lipid metabolism and inflammatory processes.Macrophages (MΦs) loaded with LDs, termed foam cells, characterize early blood vessel fatty-streak lesions during atherosclerosis.Distinct and unique roles of these enzymes in diverse biological events, including digestion, host defense, reproduction, and development of inflammatory diseases and metabolic disorders, have been described [2].s PLA snake venom, activates inflammatory functions of macrophages, including formation of lipid droplets (LDs) and upregulation of perilipin 2 (PLIN2), a scaffold protein involved in LD assembly and macrophage differentiation into foam cells [5–7].However, the mechanisms involved in foam cell formation induced by s PLA MT-III are still unclear.The biogenesis of LDs is a tightly regulated process in which lipid homeostasis-related transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), play a key role.Activated PPARs upregulate the uptake of free fatty acids by increasing the expression of the fatty acid transporter CD36 [11, 12] and LD formation through increased expression of LD-associated proteins, such as PLIN2.GW9662, GSK0660, and A922500 were purchased from Merck KGa A (Darmstadt, HE, Germany).TMP-153 and 15-d-PGJ2 antibody were obtained from Cayman Chemical (Ann Arbor, MI, USA). Wiley Online Library requires cookies for authentication and use of other site features; therefore, cookies must be enabled to browse the site.Detailed information on how Wiley uses cookies can be found in our Privacy Policy.

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