They thus give rise to major dangers for the exposed population and coastal infrastructure, such as hotel resorts, port installations and buildings on the coast. Preventive and protective measures Because man has no control over earthquakes they must be considered as unavoidable events.
The damage they cause can, therefore, only be limited by taking long-term security measures to avoid the collapse of homes and important infrastructure, such as, for example dams, nuclear power stations, reservoirs of toxic or inflammable materials, power lines, communication networks, bridges, etc. It is clear that such long-term security measures will be adapted to the major dangers that threaten different regions.
The Economic Aftermath of the Recent Earthquake in Sendai, Japan.
Fiscal Storms: Public Spending and Revenues in the Aftermath of Natural Disasters.
It should be noted that states with civil protection shelters for use in wartime have at their disposal an additional safety measure to protect their citizens in case of an earthquake and, more particularly, from the aftershocks.
Logically, precautions against tsunamis can only consist in the establishment of an observation and warning system along the coasts which have been shown in the past to be subject to this type of disaster. Intervention and rescue measures Short-term community protection measures are limited to the permanent monitoring of seismic activity in a state or region by a specialist institute having at its disposa I a reliable network of observation seismographs and acting as an earthquake information and alarm centre.
Building should also be flexible and resistant to horizontal and vertical tensions.
However, the recent earthquakes in Kobe and Los Angeles have shown that full protection from earthquakes does not exist.
Natural Disasters in the Pacific Island Countries: New Measurements of Impacts. Comparing the Direct Human Impact of Natural Disasters for Two (Surprisingly Similar) Cases - the Christchurch Earthquake and Bangkok Flood. Disasters in the Pacific: An Overview of Economic and Fiscal Issues. Regional Effects of Natural Disasters in China: Investing in Recovery.
Environment and Development Economics (2015) (web appendix). The Short-run Nationwide Macroeconomic Effects of the Canterbury Earthquakes.