The translator of the Bible into German, Martin Luther (1483–1546), is credited with being the first European to posit that one translates satisfactorily only toward his own language. Compounding the demands on the translator is the fact that no dictionary or thesaurus can ever be a fully adequate guide in translating.The Scottish historian Alexander Tytler, in his Essay on the Principles of Translation (1790), emphasized that assiduous reading is a more comprehensive guide to a language than are dictionaries.Thus translatio is "a carrying across" or "a bringing across": in this case, of a text from one language to another.
The translator of the Bible into German, Martin Luther (1483–1546), is credited with being the first European to posit that one translates satisfactorily only toward his own language. Compounding the demands on the translator is the fact that no dictionary or thesaurus can ever be a fully adequate guide in translating.The Scottish historian Alexander Tytler, in his Essay on the Principles of Translation (1790), emphasized that assiduous reading is a more comprehensive guide to a language than are dictionaries.Thus translatio is "a carrying across" or "a bringing across": in this case, of a text from one language to another.Tags: Footnotes And Endnotes In A Research PaperGeneral Thesis Statement For Compare And ContrastCreative Writing West YorkshireSolve Math Problems For MoneyAn Essay About DemocracyTerm Papers In SpanishHigh School English Essay StructureBalanced Scorecard N Case StudyOxford University Creative Writing Reading List
Except for some extreme metaphrasers in the early Christian period and the Middle Ages, and adapters in various periods (especially pre-Classical Rome, and the 18th century), translators have generally shown prudent flexibility in seeking equivalents—"literal" where possible, paraphrastic where necessary—for the original meaning and other crucial "values" (e.g., style, verse form, concordance with musical accompaniment or, in films, with speech articulatory movements) as determined from context.
In general, translators have sought to preserve the context itself by reproducing the original order of sememes, and hence word order—when necessary, reinterpreting the actual grammatical structure, for example, by shifting from active to passive voice, or vice versa.
This distinction was adopted by English poet and translator John Dryden (1631–1700), who described translation as the judicious blending of these two modes of phrasing when selecting, in the target language, "counterparts," or equivalents, for the expressions used in the source language: When [words] appear...
literally graceful, it were an injury to the author that they should be changed. what is beautiful in one [language] is often barbarous, nay sometimes nonsense, in another, it would be unreasonable to limit a translator to the narrow compass of his author's words: 'tis enough if he choose out some expression which does not vitiate the sense.
This general formulation of the central concept of translation—equivalence—is as adequate as any that has been proposed since Cicero and Horace, who, in 1st-century-BCE Rome, famously and literally cautioned against translating "word for word" (verbum pro verbo).
Despite occasional theoretical diversity, the actual practice of translation has hardly changed since antiquity.The main ground seems to be the concept of parallel creation found in critics such as Cicero.Dryden observed that "Translation is a type of drawing after life..." Comparison of the translator with a musician or actor goes back at least to Samuel Johnson's remark about Alexander Pope playing Homer on a flageolet, while Homer himself used a bassoon. In the 13th century, Roger Bacon wrote that if a translation is to be true, the translator must know both languages, as well as the science that he is to translate; and finding that few translators did, he wanted to do away with translation and translators altogether. Kelly states that since Johann Gottfried Herder in the 18th century, "it has been axiomatic" that one translates only toward his own language.Translators, including early translators of sacred texts, have helped shape the very languages into which they have translated.which comes from trans, "across" ferre, "to carry" or "to bring" (-latio in turn coming from latus, the past participle of ferre).is in fact an art both estimable and very difficult, and therefore is not the labor and portion of common minds; [it] should be [practiced] by those who are themselves capable of being actors, when they see greater use in translating the works of others than in their own works, and hold higher than their own glory the service that they render their country.Due to Western colonialism and cultural dominance in recent centuries, Western translation traditions have largely replaced other traditions.A translator always risks inadvertently introducing source-language words, grammar, or syntax into the target-language rendering.On the other hand, such "spill-overs" have sometimes imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched target languages.The Western traditions draw on both ancient and medieval traditions, and on more recent European innovations.Though earlier approaches to translation are less commonly used today, they retain importance when dealing with their products, as when historians view ancient or medieval records to piece together events which took place in non-Western or pre-Western environments.