Critical Thinking For Psychology

Critical Thinking For Psychology-26
Those interested in a more recent conceptualization of critical thinking are referred to Facione 2011a, which is a short introduction to the field of critical thinking that would be appropriate for those new to the field, or Facione 1990, which summarizes a collaborative definition of critical thinking among philosophers using the Delphi method.Facione 2011b would be a valuable resource for philosophers teaching critical thinking or logic courses to general audiences.Nisbett 1993 tackles the question of whether critical thinking skills can be taught and provides ample empirical evidence to that end. 2007 is a good resource for psychology students interested in learning how to improve their scientific reasoning skills, a specific set of thinking skills needed by psychology and other science students.

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2007), while the other sources are review articles or commentaries.

Most resources were intended for a general audience, but Sternberg, et al.

The rising tide of inaccurate information online in the early decades of the 21st Century only reinforces her point.

Video platforms like You Tube do not discriminate between fact and fiction.

We will discuss some basic principles in this course.

Any natural science course at a college or university should be helpful in gaining familiarity with science.What is the "weak spot" in education for critical thinking?For somebody without higher education, how can one explain the nature of scientific evidence?Critical thinking has been described in many ways over the years. Knowledge about this process is a major weak spot in public education in the U. However, fewer than 30% could give a passable definition of a scientific experiment or hypothesis.Here are some recurrent themes: Avoid jumping to conclu­sions [Suspend judgment; keep an open mind until you have adequate evidence; tolerate uncertainty; avoid oversimpli­fication.] Examine assumptions [Identify premises or starting assump­tions; avoid accepting an idea simply because it appeals to pre-existing biases or assumptions.] Generate new ideas [Experiment with ideas opposite to those normally considered; ask questions; consider other perspectives.] Evaluate evidence [Ask whether an idea generates surprising predictions. See what experts in the field have to say about controversial ideas. Rensberger (2000) wrote: Without a grasp of the scientific ways of thinking, the average person cannot tell the difference between science based on real data and something that resem­bles science–at least in their eyes–but is based on uncontrolled experiments, anec­dotal evidence, and passionate assertions. The claim, for example, that brains can transmit information telepathically, strikes them as no less believable than the claim that whole stars can collapse...2007) and philosophical (Ennis 1962, Facione 1990) perspectives.Many of these general overviews are textbooks (Facione 2011b; Halpern 2003; Nisbett 1993; Sternberg, et al.Critical thinking has been described in many ways, but researchers generally agree that critical thinking involves rational, purposeful, and goal-directed thinking (see Defining Critical Thinking). Halpern defined critical thinking as an attempt to increase the probability of a desired outcome (e.g., making a sound decision, successfully solving a problem) by using certain cognitive skills and strategies.Critical thinking is more than just a collection of skills and strategies: it is a disposition toward engaging with problems.Critical thinkers are flexible, open-minded, persistent, and willing to exert mental energy working on tough problems.Unlike poor thinkers, critical thinkers are willing to admit they have made an error in judgment if confronted with contradictory evidence, and they operate on autopilot much less than poor thinkers (see Critical Thinking Dispositions).


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