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Native Americans placed in missions, at times voluntarily to avoid warring tribes, and often involuntarily, were taught Catholic doctrines, the Spanish language, and a curriculum of handicrafts and skilled labor to match Spain's views of the Native American's role as subordinated colonial workers.Initially Spanish priests were ordered to learn native languages and created numerous scholarly works on Native American traditions and language.
However, access, even among Mexican Americans with these characteristics, was not guaranteed but subject to school-by-school's or district by district's unwritten practices. Sánchez described in 1948, the decision to be placed in either a white or a Mexican school was "arbitrary and capricious." The Aoy Preparatory School in El Paso, Texas is illustrative of the shift of Spanish language schools to public schools which stressed "American" values.
Subsequentally these schools became segregated "Mexican" schools within the public school system.
Alexander Hamilton | Alexander Hodge | Ambassador Fletcher Warren | Arlington | Athens | Bernardo de Galvez | Big Country | Bluebonnet | Boerne | Brazos Valley | Capt John Mc Adams | Capt.
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Westward expansion and immigration from Europe and then from Mexico after the 1910 Revolution, triggered conflicts between more established European Anglo and English-speaking U. The widespread and accepted view of public schools as vehicles of Americanization among Anglo-Saxon Protestant education reformers ultimately triumphed in the Southwest but not without decades of compromise, resistance, and fluidity. Educational policies during this era varied depending upon the local economic and political power of the Mexican descent population.
For example, the new states of Texas (1845) and California (1850) experienced more rapid Americanization and English-only policies from Anglo settlers pushing east and bringing with them distinct schooling traditions and policies.
Higher levels such as secondary schooling and college, however, would permit Mexican American children access to a segment of society Anglos reserved for themselves.Nomenclature of schools is telling in this regard. Not all Mexican Americans, however, were blocked from the upper grades or entrance into the white schools.
Particularly in Texas, schools with mostly white children were called "American" while schools designated for children of Spanish or Mexican descent were called "Mexican." As will be documented in the following pages, white parents, in particular, were determined to keep "Mexican" children out of their "American" schools, even if these were third generation Mexican American who were U. Rather, porous opportunities existed for a slim segment of Mexican Americans who possessed honorary whiteness.This honorary whiteness was often extended to children with American surnames (typically those with an Anglo father), children possessing light complexions, members of the older "elite" Spanish families in certain locales, and others who possessed economic/social capital or connections with school board members.
In 18, the law was amended to stipulate, "no school shall be entitled to the [monetary]benefits of this act unless the English language is principally taught therein."The amended law, targeted at both German immigrants and former Mexican citizens, attempted to impose English as the primary language in public schools.
Mexican American parents with resources responded to this and the virulent anti-Catholic sentiments that Protestant Anglo settlers brought with them to Texas, by enrolling their children in Catholic schools or establishing their own independent private schools. Unlike the strict de jure segregated schooling for African Americans in the South based upon race, Mexican American children in Southwestern and Midwestern states such as Iowa and Kansas, were placed in "Mexican" classrooms or schools as a result of "color of the law" or "custom" beginning in the early 1900s.Anglo administrators defended this practice, saying that it was a result of English language deficiencies, although many "Mexican" students spoke only English.