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The Isolated Sinkhole community was dominated by novel members of the Beggiatoaceae that are phylogenetically intermediate between known freshwater and marine groups. Several of these Beggiatoaceae had 16S r RNA genes that contained introns previously observed only in marine taxa.
A sample was collected from the whole white mat, which was directly attached to the fountain substrate, in the upper basin of the Alpena library fountain site (45 3.747′N, 83 25.872′W) on July 24th, 2012, and preserved in RNAlater (Ambion) as instructed by the manufacturer.
Sulfide concentrations were determined by the methylene blue method (Cline, 1969) using Procedure 1 described by Reese et al. Dissolved oxygen was measured by a YSI Pro Dissolved Oxygen probe (Digital Professional Series).
The Alpena fountain was dominated by populations closely related to Thiothrix lacustris and an SM1 euryarchaeon known to live symbiotically with Thiothrix spp.
The SM1 genomic bin contained evidence of H and nitrate as electron acceptors. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00484 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Konkol, N.
Two distinct microbial mat morphotypes cover the floor of the sinkhole: one is white, irregularly shaped, and cohesive and the other is brown, non-cohesive, and sometimes associated with pink ‘fingers’ (Biddanda et al., 2006).
Previous sampling and microscopic analysis of the Isolated Sinkhole characterized the microbial mat community as low diversity, with just a few dominant bacterial species (Biddanda et al., 2006). Sickle: A Sliding-Window, Adaptive, Quality-Based Trimming Tool for Fast Q files (Version 1.33) [Software]. Little is known about large sulfur bacteria (LSB) that inhabit sulfidic groundwater seeps in large lakes. Oxidation of molecular hydrogen by a chemolithoautotrophic Beggiatoa strain. To examine how geochemically relevant microbial metabolisms are partitioned among community members, we conducted metagenomic analysis of a chemosynthetic microbial mat in the Isolated Sinkhole, which is in a deep, aphotic environment of Lake Huron. doi: 10.1007/s00248-010-9656-z Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Kreutzmann, A.-C., and Schulz-Vogt, H. These results show that groundwater-fed communities in an artesian fountain and in submerged sinkholes of Lake Huron are a rich source of novel LSB, associated heterotrophic and sulfate-reducing bacteria, and archaea. Groundwater shapes sediment biogeochemistry and microbial diversity in a submerged Great Lake sinkhole. doi: 10.1111/gbi.12215 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Klatt, J. The discovery of chemosynthetic communities at deep-sea hydrothermal vents fundamentally changed views of how energy and carbon flows through ecosystems (Jannasch and Wirsen, 1979). The geochemistry of this groundwater is shaped by water-rock interactions in Silurian-Devonian carbonate-limestone bedrock aquifers, in which evaporites including gypsum and anhydrite are dissolved (Ruberg et al., 2008). “Evolution of protein molecules,” in Mammalian Protein Metabolism, ed. Dissolution of the limestone has produced both onshore and offshore karst formations in Alpena County, including sinkholes in the lake bottom where groundwater emerges (Biddanda et al., 2006). A complete description of the fountain site is provided in Snider et al. Major differences in microbial mat habitat between this site and the Isolated Sinkhole include the following: (i) the fountain is exposed to direct sunlight, (ii) groundwater at the fountain is in closer contact with atmospheric oxygen but does not interact with lake water as at Isolated Sinkhole, (iii) mats in the fountain have no underlying sediment as at Isolated Sinkhole, (iv) the rate of water flow at the fountain is higher than at the Isolated Sinkhole. In this study, we sought to understand the interaction between groundwater geochemistry and microbial community composition and metabolism in two contrasting settings, the Isolated Sinkhole and the Alpena fountain. We used a metagenomic approach to identify genes that underpin energy metabolisms, focusing on sulfur metabolism, hydrogen oxidation, aerobic respiration, denitrification, and carbon fixation. Pathways and microbiology of thiosulfate transformations and sulfate reduction in a marine sediment (Kattegat, Denmark). Our results indicate that these two communities are driven by similar suites of largely sulfur-based metabolic pathways held within different taxa at the two sites. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00647-10 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Jørgensen, B.