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In the interconnected short sketches of (1896), Scott introduced psychological realism into narrative form, eulogizing rural Quebec life on the verge of urban change.With their stories of the lives of animals, Roberts and Ernest Thompson Seton--best known respectively for (1902) and Wild Animals I Have Known (1898)--were even more popular.Influential journalists and educators took diverging sides on the future of the new nation.
A railway to the Pacific (completed 1885) would bring new provinces into Canada during these decades.
Author, minister and educator George Monro Grant in 1872 travelled 5000 miles across the country, with Sandford Fleming (who later developed the international system of standard Time Zones) and the railway surveying expedition.
Male writers, too, achieved some popular success internationally, though many are now largely forgotten. James de Mille's speculative Timber Trade History) - instead of relying on the romantic glow of an imaginary past. Campbell together reshaped poetry from the 1880s till the 1920s.
Grant Allen and Albert Hickman featured detectives and the paranormal. Many literary historians still regard the members of "Confederation Group" as the dominant literary figures of the late 19th century. While they differed from each other--Carman captivated by song rhythms and the "Unitrinianism" of Mary Perry King, Scott holding to a belief that the First Nations were "a dying race," Roberts often celebratory, Lampman often dour--they were all influenced by the later English Romantic poets and the American Transcendentalists.
By expanding continentally through Cree, Blackfoot, and Métis lands, however, this ostensibly orderly version of Canada would have to face a series of alternatives with long-term impact: Louis Riel's resistance movements, an increase in non-British immigration, and the continuing cross-border threat, and appeal, of the USA.
With growing literacy and increasing technology came a series of challenges to received notions of cultural uniformity.In , which was later adopted in 1921 as the national motto, A Mare Usque Ad Mari.In 1873, the newly formed North-West Mounted Police would carry order west and north.With social change, including advanced education for women (in 1875 Mount Allison was the first university in the British Empire to award a woman a bachelor's degree), women extended their influence in literature and the community (Women and Education, Status of Women).Female editors and journalists--among them Alice Jones, Agnes Maule Machar, Sara Jeannette Duncan, Kit Coleman, Jean Mc Ilwraith, Florence Randal Livesay, and Nellie Mc Clung, all active poets or novelists as well--wrote variously about bicycles, independent travel, foreign wars, local politics, and women's rights (.The realities of financial constraint nevertheless drew many patriotic writers, such as Lavallée, C. Anthropologists vigorously gathered First Nations stories on the West Coast, but popular English-language renderings of Inuit and First Nations tales repeatedly expurgated them, recasting them as quasi-Christian fables for children.The greater presence that some First Nations writers began to acquire in the early 20th century--notably the Mohawk poet and tale-teller Pauline Johnson--marks a slight shift in cultural attitudes.Phillips Thompson pointedly argued that the labouring class was largely excluded from prevailing theories of progress. Outside the country, the Canadian border was frequently represented as a guarantee of justice and freedom: for example, as "Jordan, the crossing to the Promised Land" in African-American song, and as the protective "Medicine Line" to Blackfoot, Lakota, and other Indigenous nations.The short fiction writer Susan Frances Harrison insisted that her work be published in Canada because foreign publishers kept distorting the local idiom she was using. Though 19th century Black tales in Canada were not collected till 1931, folksong and folktale (Folklore) did record many of the events of the time; several songs allude to the Red River Rebellion and the Klondike Gold Rush.Fredericton and Montreal became creative centres, and in Toronto the --provided space for discussion of science, technological change, politics, and moral progress, as did the Royal Society of Canada (est. New technologies, such as the telephone, electric light, and the motorized engine, would serve development over the next four decades.Canadian writers, often publishing abroad, still faced economic pressure and the colonial restrictions of international copyright law, but social services, such as free education for children, would advance, and political boundaries expand.