E., with recurrent outbreaks for about two centuries thereafter. Several medieval accounts recognized the distinct symptoms of pneumonic plague, which included respiratory distress such as shortage of breath and coughing up of blood or sputum, as well as a quick death. To explain the apparent greater virulence of historic plague compared to modern plague, some scholars have suggested that the Black Death was an outbreak of pneumonic plague, which has very high case-fatality rates and can spread from person to person. In the last twenty-five years, a new source of material evidence has become available. Bioarchaeology investigates human skeletal remains excavated from archaeological sites to determine the ages at which people died, as well as their sex, health, diet, migration, experience of interpersonal violence, and other behaviors. For more information, read Michigan Publishing's access and usage policy. “Mortality Risk Factors Show Similar Trends in Modern and Historic Populations Exposed to Plague.” 48(3) (1983): 489–98. Abstract: The fourteenth-century Black Death was one of the most important and devastating epidemics in human history. 1347–13–1362) from bioarchaeological and historical perspectives, focusing on attempts to reconstruct mortality patterns and addressing the questions: Who died in England during the Black Death? We evaluate how historical and bioarchaeological sources are uniquely informative about these questions and highlight the limitations that are associated with each type of data. The combination of the two bodies of evidence, when possible, can provide insights that are not possible when each is analyzed in isolation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 License. Please contact [email protected] use this work in a way not covered by the license.