The amount of ATP generated in the respiratory chain far exceeds the modest quantities produced in the upstream pathways; this is the reason why only aerobic metabolism enables us to sustain physical exertion for extended periods of time.
The unit for measuring electric charge is the coulomb (C), named after Charles-Augustin Coulomb, an 18th-century French physicist.
Coulomb developed the law that says "like charges repel; unlike charges attract." A coulomb is defined as the amount of charge transported by a current of one ampere for one second.
In contrast, the respiratory chain combines chemical reactions with physical forces that are not pinned down to individual molecules, and the energy is stored and converted in novel ways.
The respiratory chain involves four large protein complexes (I–IV) as well as ATP synthase (AS).
All of these are embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Coenzyme Q (Q) and cytochrome C (C) are diffusible electron carriers. Make your own flashcards that can be shared with others.Learn with extra-efficient algorithm, developed by our team, to save your time.However, gravity still dominates the universe on a large scale, because, unlike charge, it is possible to assemble large quantities of mass.Large accumulations of similarly charged particles are not possible due to their mutual repulsion and their affinity for unlike charges.The Coulomb force is one of the two fundamental forces that is noticeable on a macroscopic scale, the other being gravity.However, the electrical force is much, much stronger than gravity.Note that the reactants in this scheme are not stoichiometrically balanced. The electrons are then passed down the chain to complex IV, which transfers them to molecular oxygen; the reduced oxygen then reacts with protons to yield water.Complexes I, III and IV extract energy from the electron flow and use it to expel protons across the membrane.However, Franklin became convinced that there was only one single electric fluid and that objects could have excess or deficiency of this fluid.Therefore, according to the University of Arizona, he invented the terms positive and negative to designate an excess or deficiency, respectively.